Incidence of tracheal aspiration in tracheotomized patients in use of mechanical ventilation

Simão, Mariana de Almeida; Alacid, Camila Albuquerque Nobre; Rodrigues, Katia Alonso; Albuquerque, Christiane; Furkim, Ana Maria
Arq. Gastroenterol. 46(4): 311-314, TAB. 2009 Dec.

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Many patients in use of mechanical ventilation show clinical complications due to tracheal aspiration. Assessment and early methods are necessary, so that preventive and safety measures apply to this patients
OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of tracheal aspiration of saliva in tracheotomized patients treated in intensive care unit using two modes of mechanical ventilation and with different sedation levels.
METHOD: Prospective study with 14 tracheotomized non-neurological patients using mechanical ventilation. The sample was divided into two groups based on ventilation mode: pressure support ventilation and pressure controlled ventilation. Those two groups were subdivided into two others according to sedation level. The speech pathology evaluation was completed via the blue dye test in order to analyze the incidence of tracheal aspiration of saliva.
RESULTS: Sedation levels and mechanical ventilation time related to tracheal aspiration were not statistically significant in this study. On the other hand, ventilation mode and tracheal aspiration showed statistical significance, and there was a higher incidence of tracheal aspiration in the pressure controlled ventilation mode.
CONCLUSION: It was possible to observe a significant relationship between tracheal aspiration incidence and pressure controlled ventilation mode, which means the inclusion of those patients in the risk group for oropharyngeal dysphagia and their insertion in prevention protocols. The relationship between tracheal aspiration and sedation level, as well as tracheal aspiration and mechanical ventilation, were not statistically significant in this sample, needing further research.

Headings: Tracheostomy. Respiration, artificial. Deglutition disorders. Respiratory aspiration.

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