Simple Swallowing Provocation Test Has Limited Applicability as a Screening Tool for Detecting Aspiration, Silent Aspiration, or Penetration

Hitoshi Kagaya, Sumiko Okada, Eiichi Saitoh, Mikoto Baba and Michio Yokoyama, et al.

Dysphagia, Volume 25, Number 1 (2010), 6-10, DOI: 10.1007/s00455-009-9222-3

Abstract

A number of tests for evaluating dysphagia without using videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing (VF) or videoendoscopic evaluation of swallowing (VE) have been developed. The simple swallowing provocation test (SSPT) is unique because it is performed while in a supine position and does not require the patient’s cooperation. However, whether the SSPT detects aspiration or penetration correctly is unclear because its validity determined by VF or VE has not been evaluated. Therefore, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive accuracy of SSPT followed by VF in 45 patients. The sensitivities of the first-step and the second-step SSPT for the detection of aspiration, silent aspiration, or penetration were 72–75% and 13–17%, respectively; the specificities of the first-step and the second-step SSPT were 38–44% and 80–89%, respectively; and the predictive accuracies of the first-step and the second-step SSPT were 58–67% and 31–49%, respectively. These data suggest that SSPT has limited applicability as a screening tool for aspiration, silent aspiration, or penetration because of its low sensitivity. This test may be useful for patients who cannot undergo other tests due to cognitive and/or linguistic dysfunction.

Keywords  Aspiration – Penetration – Screening test – Simple swallowing provocation test – Deglutition – Deglutition disorders

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