The Validation of the Chinese Version of the Swallow Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Pui Mei Lam and Claudia Kam Yuk Lai

Dysphagia, Volume 26, Number 2 (2011), 117-124, DOI: 10.1007/s00455-010-9272-6


The aim of this work was to study the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swallow Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (CSWAL-QOL) validated in the Hong Kong Chinese-speaking population. With convenience sampling, a cross-sectional survey was launched to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CSWAL-QOL. One hundred subjects with swallowing problems were recruited to evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency, and 20 subjects were recruited for the test–retest reliability. Construct validity was validated through factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) and a correlation study between the CSWAL-QOL and the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Questionnaire—abbreviated version [WHOQOL-BREF (HK)]. Reliability was estimated using tests of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The psychometric properties of the CSWAL-QOL were found to be largely similar to those of the SWAL-QOL, except the three-item eating desire scale of the CSWAL-QOL, which showed insignificant results in the validity and reliability tests. The CSWAL-QOL is the first validated Chinese version of the SWAL-QOL in Hong Kong. It is a clinically valid and reliable tool for assessing the quality of life in dysphagic Chinese patients in Hong Kong, regardless of the causes of dysphagia.

Keywords  Dysphagia – Quality of life – Psychometrics – Outcome measurements – Deglutition – Deglutition disorders


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