Arquivo do autor:Natalie Argolo Ponte

Sobre Natalie Argolo Ponte

PhD, Speech Therapist

Operating environment for awake brain surgery – Choice of tests

M Wager 1P Rigoard 2C Bouyer 3V Baudiffier 3V Stal 4B Bataille 5R Gil 6F Du Boisgueheneuc 3


Introduction: The indication for awake brain surgery depends on a prerequisite, i.e. recognition that the brain area concerned is truly eloquent, and identification of one or more functions that must be preserved. These functions are determined preoperatively in collaboration with the patient, and neuropsychological tests considered to be the most relevant are performed in the operating room according to each team’s technical preferences.

Operating environment: The neurosurgeon must choose transfer equipment considered to be relevant. Although a minimal technological environment is an option, a surgical team with great human wealth is essential, composed of specialized personnel with complementary skills.

Choice and implementation of intraoperative tests: The choice of intraoperative tests, which can be relatively simple for certain primary functions, can be much more difficult for high-level cognitive functions. No consensus has been reached concerning these tests, which must therefore be selected on an individual basis. Intraoperative testing must be based on preoperative multidisciplinary decisions made jointly by the neurosurgeon, neurologist, speech therapist and neuropsychologist.

Conclusions: Numerous operating tools and technology transfers are available for neurosurgical teams performing awake brain surgery but none – or very few – of them constitutes a mandatory prerequisite. In contrast, the transition from the concept of eloquent brain area to that of brain functions that must be preserved requires highly skilled multidisciplinary human resources. This goal will be more likely achieved in centers highly specialized in functional oncological neurosurgery.

Keywords: Awake brain surgery; Functional brain surgery; Intraoperative testing; Operating room; Technology transfer.


Photobiomodulation Therapy to Treat Facial Paralysis of 8 Years: Case Report

Christian Giancarlo Bernal Rodriguez, DDS, MS, Isabella Berlingieri Polho,
Luciane Hiramatsu Azevedo, DDS, MS, PhD, and Carlos de Paula Eduardo, DDS, MS, PhD


Background: Paralysis of the facial muscles produces functional and aesthetic disturbance that has a negative impact for the patient’s quality of life.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a photobiomodulation (PBM) with low-level laser (LLL) on the treatment of a patient with 8 years of facial paralysis.

Methods: PBM with two different wavelengths of LLL (660 and 808 nm), applied only on the affected side, three times a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Evaluations were performed before starting treatments, after the 12th session of treatment and after the 24th session, using the House–Brackmann scale and electroneuromyography.
Results: The House–Brackmann and electroneuromyography tests showed improvements in the movement of the facial muscles when tested in the middle and at the end of the treatment with LLL.

Conclusions: PBM with LLL at the wavelength of 660 and 808 nm with the parameters used in this case report was an effective and noninvasive treatment for facial paralysis in this long-standing, chronic case of 8 years.

Keywords: facial paralysis, photobiomodulation, House–Brackmann scale, electroneuromyography test

DOI: 10.1089/photob.2019.4763


Tongue Shape Dynamics in Swallowing Using Sagittal Ultrasound

Ohkubo, M. & Scobbie, J.M.
Dysphagia (2019) 34: 112.

US Lingua                                                                                                                              Fonte: Researchgate


Ultrasound imaging is simple, repeatable, gives real-time feedback, and its dynamic soft tissue imaging may make it superior to other modalities for swallowing research. We tested this hypothesis and measured certain spatial and dynamic aspects of the swallowing to investigate its efficacy. Eleven healthy adults wearing a headset to stabilize the probe participated in the study. Both thickened and thin liquids were used, and liquid bolus volumes of 10 and 25 ml were administered to the subjects by using a cup. The tongue’s surface was traced as a spline superimposed on a fan-shaped measurement space for every image from the time at which the tongue blade started moving up toward the palate at the start of swallowing to the time when the entire tongue was in contact with the palate. To measure depression depth, the distance (in mm) was measured along each radial fan line from the location at which the tongue’s surface spline intersected the fan line to the point where the hard palate intersected the fan line at each timepoint. There were differences between individual participants in the imageability of the swallow, and so we defined quantitatively “measureable” and “unmeasurable” types. The most common type was measureable, in which we could find a clear bolus depression in the cupped tongue’s surface. Indeed, with 10 ml of thin liquids, we were able to find and measure the depression depth for all participants. The average maximum radial distance from the palate to the tongue’s surface was 20.9 mm (median) (IQR: 4.3 mm) for swallowing 10 ml of thin liquid compared to 24.6 mm (IQR: 3.3 mm) for 25 ml of thin liquid swallow (p < 0.001). We conclude that it is possible to use ultrasound imaging of the tongue to capture spatial aspects of swallowing.

Home-Based Orolingual Exercise Improves the Coordination of Swallowing and Respiration in Early Parkinson Disease: A Quasi-Experimental Before-and-After Exercise Program Study

Front Neurol. 2018 Jul 30;9:624. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00624. eCollection 2018.


Introduction: The coordination of swallowing and respiration is important for safety swallowing without aspiration. This coordination was affected in Parkinson disease (PD). A noninvasive assessment tool was used to investigate the effect of an easy-to-perform and device-free home-based orolingual exercise (OLE) program on swallowing and respiration coordination in patients with early-stage PD. Materials and Methods: This study had a quasi-experimental before-and-after exercise program design. Twenty six patients with early-stage PD who were aged 62.12 ± 8.52 years completed a 12-week home-based OLE program. A noninvasive assessment tool was used to evaluate swallowing and respiration. For each patient, we recorded and analyzed 15 swallows (3 repeats of 5 water boluses: 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mL) before and after the home-based OLE program. Oropharyngeal swallowing and its coordination with respiration were the outcome measures. The frequency of piecemeal deglutition, pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns, and parameters of oropharyngeal swallowing and respiratory signals (swallowing respiratory pause [SRP], onset latency [OL], total excursion time [TET], excursion time [ET], second deflexion, amplitude, and duration of submental sEMG activity, and amplitude of laryngeal excursion) were examined. Results: The rate of piecemeal deglutition decreased significantly when swallowing 10- and 20-mL water boluses after the program. In the 1-mL water bolus swallowing trial, the rate of protective pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns was significantly higher after the program. For the parameters of oropharyngeal swallowing and respiratory signals, only the amplitude of laryngeal excursion was significantly lower after the program. Moreover, the volume of the water bolus significantly affected the SRP and duration of submental sEMG when patients swallowed three small water bolus volumes (1, 3, and 5 mL). Conclusion: The home-based OLE program improved swallowing and its coordination with respiration in patients with early-stage PD, as revealed using a noninvasive method. This OLE program can serve as a home-based program to improve swallowing and respiration coordination in patients with early-stage PD.

Speech and swallow rehabilitation in head and neck cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines


This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. The disease itself and the treatment can have far reaching effects on speech and swallow function, which are consistently prioritised by survivors as an area of concern. This paper provides recommendations on the assessments and interventions for speech and swallow rehabilitation in this patient group.


• All multidisciplinary teams should have rehabilitation patient pathways covering all stages of the patient’s journey including multidisciplinary and pre-treatment clinics. (G)

• Clinicians treating head and neck cancer patients should consult the National Cancer Rehabilitation Pathway for head and neck cancers. (G)

• All head and neck cancer patients should have a pre-treatment assessment of speech and swallowing. (G)

• A programme of prophylactic exercises and the teaching of swallowing manoeuvres can reduce impairments, maintain function and enable a speedier recovery. (R)

• Continued speech and language therapist input is important in maintaining voice and safe and effective swallow function following head and neck cancer treatment. (R)

• Disease recurrence must be ruled out in the management of stricture and/or stenosis. (R)

• Continuous radial expansion balloons offer a safe, effective dilation method with advantages over gum elastic bougies. (R)

• Site, length and completeness of strictures as well as whether they are in the presence of the larynx or not, need to be assessed when establishing the likelihood of surgically improved outcome. (G)

• Primary surgical voice restoration should be offered to all patients undergoing laryngectomy. (R)

• Attention to surgical detail and long-term speech and language therapist input is required to optimise speech and swallowing after laryngectomy. (G)

• Patients should commence wearing heat and moisture exchange devices as soon as possible after laryngectomy. (R)



Terapia da disfagia na doença de Parkinson 

Expert Rev Neurother. 2010 Jun;10(6):875-8. doi: 10.1586/ern.10.60.

Dysphagia in Parkinson’s disease: a therapeutic challenge?

Michou E1Hamdy S.


This article focuses on the current status and research directions on swallowing disorders (dysphagia) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although epidemiological data are scarce, increased incidence of dysphagia in patients with PD leads to increased risk of mortality, secondary to aspiration pneumonia. Although studies show that aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death in this group of patients, clinical practice lacks an evidence base and there is an increased need for randomized clinical trials. Importantly, the underlying mechanisms accounting for the progression of dysphagia in PD are still unclear. Furthermore, evidence shows that dopaminergic medication does not affect swallowing performance. Future research in the field is urgently needed and may result in improved management of dysphagia in patients with PD.

Edição comemorativa 25 anos do Dysphagia Journal

Em comemoração aos 25 anos de uma das revistas mais importantes no campo da disfagia mundial, foi lançada uma edição comemorativa neste mês de fevereiro de 2017.

Esta edição conta com importantes textos de ponto de vista e revisões em áreas como avaliação por FEES (Langmore), reabilitação (Easterling), estratégias compensatórias (Lazarus) além de avaliação videofluoroscópica, biofeedback, estudos em modelos animais, dentre outros. Vale a pena dar uma olhada.

Segue o link abaixo e a maioria dos artigos podem ser baixados a partir de uma conexão universitária. Bom carnaval! 😉


Failed Deglutitive Upper Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation Is a Risk Factor for Aspiration in Stroke Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 Aug 10. doi: 10.5056/jnm16028. [Epub ahead of print]



We attempted to examine the relationship between abnormal findings on high-resolution manometry (HRM) and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) of the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and to identify the risk factors for aspiration.


We performed VFSS and HRM on the same day in 36 ischemic stroke patients (mean age, 67.5 years) with dysphagia. Pressure (basal, median intra bolus, nadir), relaxation time interval of the UES, and mesopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal contractility (as a contractile integral) were examined using HRM. The parameters of VFSS were vallecular residue, pyriform sinus residue, vallecular overflow, penetration, and aspiration. The association between the parameters of VFSS and HRM was analyzed by the Student’s t test.


Three (8.3 %) and 4 (11.1 %) stroke patients with dysphagia had pyriform sinus residue and vallecular sinus residue, respectively, and 5 (13.8%) patients showed aspiration. Mesopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal contractile integrals in patients with residue in pyriform sinus were significantly lower than those in patients without residue in pyriform sinus (P < 0.05, respectively). Relaxation time intervals in patients with aspiration were significantly shorter than those in patients without aspiration (P < 0.05), and multivariate regression analysis revealed a shorter relaxation time interval as the main risk factor for aspiration (odds ratio, 0.025; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.652).


Manometric measurements of the pharynx and UES were well correlated with abnormal findings in the VFSS and a shorter relaxation time interval of the UES during deglutition is an important parameter for the development of aspiration.


Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with effortful swallowing on post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: a randomised controlled trial.

J Oral Rehabil. 2016 Jun;43(6):426-34. doi: 10.1111/joor.12390. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
Park JS1, Oh DH2, Hwang NK3, Lee JH4.


Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as a therapeutic intervention for dysphagia. However, the therapeutic effects of NMES lack supporting evidence. In recent years, NMES combined with traditional swallowing therapy has been used to improve functional recovery in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of effortful swallowing combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hyoid bone movement and swallowing function in stroke patients. Fifty stroke patients with mild dysphagia who were able to swallow against the resistance applied by using NMES and cooperate actively in training were included. This study was designed as a 6-week single-blind, randomised, controlled study. In the experimental group, two pairs of electrodes were placed horizontally in the infrahyoid region to depress the hyoid bone. The NMES intensity was increased gradually until the participants felt a grabbing sensation in their neck and performed an effortful swallow during the stimulation. In the placebo group, the same procedure was followed except for the intensity, which was increased gradually until the participants felt an electrical sensation. All participants underwent this intervention for 30 min per session, 5 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were carried out before and after the intervention and kinematics of the hyoid bone and swallowing function were analysed based on the VFSS. The experimental group revealed a significant increase in anterior and superior hyoid bone movement and the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing function. This intervention can be used as a novel remedial approach in dysphagic stroke patients.