Arquivo da categoria: Science

Toward discovery science of human brain function.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 9;107(10):4734-9. Epub 2010 Feb 22.

Source

Department of Radiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

Abstract

Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual’s “functional connectome.” Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual’s functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176931

 

A arte de redigir um trabalho científico

Fabio Xerfan Nahas; Lydia Masako Ferreira

Acta Cir. Bras. vol.20  suppl.2 São Paulo  2005

RESUMO

A redação científica e suas particularidades são descritas neste artigo. A dificuldade do autor-médico ao escrever, o uso inadequado do jargão médico e as regras básicas de escrita são analisados. O autor é orientado, desde o início da fase de redação do trabalho, a como colocar suas idéias progressivamente no papel de modo a organiza-las em um rascunho inicial e, subseqüentemente, ir melhorando este manuscrito. As idéias de simplificação de escrita, ordem direta e objetividade numérica que são a base da redação científica estão relatadas e discutidas.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-86502005000800005

Desafios na publicação científica

Gilson Luiz VolpatoI; Eliane Gonçalves de FreitasII

Pesqui. Odontol. Bras. vol.17  suppl.1 São Paulo May 2003

IResearch Center on Animal Welfare – RECAW; Laboratório de Fisiologia e Comportamento, Departamento de Fisiologia, IBB, UNESP
IIResearch Center on Animal Welfare – RECAW; Laboratório de Comportamento Animal, Departamento de Zoologia e Botânica, IBILCE, UNESP

RESUMO

Discutimos os principais problemas que fazem com que um texto científico não seja encontrado, lido ou aceito pelos leitores. Um texto científico é considerado um argumento lógico. Portanto, métodos, resultados e dados da literatura são considerados premissas que suportam as conclusões do trabalho; e na sessão “Introdução”, as justificativas corroboram o objetivo do estudo. Esta concepção torna o texto uma estrutura hermeticamente coerente onde somente dados necessários devem ser incluídos (algumas controvérsias são pertinentes). Num segundo passo, mostramos equívocos formais na redação científica, os quais tornam os textos menos atrativos. Assim, damos exemplos de erros e inadequações formais na apresentação de títulos, resumos, resultados (figuras e tabelas) e erros gramaticais em português (também válidos para a gramática inglesa). Posteriormente, enfatizamos a necessidade para redações em língua internacional (inglês) e publicação em periódicos com impacto na comunidade científica internacional. Finalmente, consideramos aspectos para melhora dos periódicos brasileiros na área biológica.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-74912003000500008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Scientific writing and the quality of papers: towards a higher impact.

J Soc Bras Fonoaudiol. 2011 Dec;23(4):401-406.

Source

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Fonoaudiologia e Terapia Ocupacional, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Abstract

Given the latent concern of scientists and editors on the quality of scientific writing, the aim of this paper was to present topics on the recommended structure of peer-reviewed papers. We described the key points of common sections of original papers and proposed two additional materials that may be useful for scientific writing: one particular guide to help the organization of the main ideas of the paper; and a table with examples of non desirable and desirable structures in scientific writing.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S2179-64912011000400019&script=sci_arttext

Strategic Reading, Ontologies, and the Future of Scientific Publishing

  1. Allen H. Renear* and Carole L. Palmer

The revolution in scientific publishing that has been promised since the 1980s is about to take place. Scientists have always read strategically, working with many articles simultaneously to search, filter, scan, link, annotate, and analyze fragments of content. An observed recent increase in strategic reading in the online environment will soon be further intensified by two current trends: (i) the widespread use of digital indexing, retrieval, and navigation resources and (ii) the emergence within many scientific disciplines of interoperable ontologies. Accelerated and enhanced by reading tools that take advantage of ontologies, reading practices will become even more rapid and indirect, transforming the ways in which scientists engage the literature and shaping the evolution of scientific publishing.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5942/828.abstract

Organizing scientific articles

The pearl of Julio Pereira, Resident of Neurosurgery at Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. He was my intellectual mentor to develop the “Disfagia Brasil”. Thanks Julio!

Neurosurgery Blog

One of the biggest problems that I have had was organize scientific articles. I have tried several ways to save them, by year and theme, put into folders by topic but invariably it remained some articles 00256 that I have never known what they were.

After some years trying solve this problem I managed to solve it with  the program Mendeley desktop Free.

Now I put all my PDF  files there and it renames them  for me. Then it saves them  in one specific folder and renamed. And it is allowed to choose how it renames. I prefer rename them by year and title.

After do this it is so easy to  find an article. In Mac, you can just put the key-words that you find in the Finder.

The discover of this program helped me a lot. It exists other programs like Paper that also enables to do this…

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