Arquivo da categoria: Stroke

Transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation in swallowing rehabilitation following stroke – A review of the literature

Doeltgen SH, Bradnam LV, Young JA, Fong E.

Physiol Behav. 2015 Feb 17;

TMS Stroke



This descriptive review of the literature outlines the current evidence-base underpinning the potential of transcranial brain stimulation techniques to modulate swallowing function in healthy individuals and in treating post-stroke dysphagia.


Published research was identified by review of scientific databases (Scopus, Medline Ovid, Science Direct, AMED and Google Scholar) using relevant keywords. In addition, the reference lists of identified articles were scrutinized to identify further potentially relevant papers. Studies employing variants of transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation for the purpose of modulating swallowing motor cortical excitability in healthy participants or dysphagia following stroke were included. Due to a significant heterogeneity in stimulation paradigms, all included studies were summarised and descriptively analysed in relation to the participants tested, cortical representations targeted by brain stimulation and outcome measures used.


Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria (seven evaluating healthy participants, 10 evaluating participants presenting with post-strokedysphagia). Cortical stimulation most commonly targeted pharyngeal motor representations (13/17 studies). In the 10 clinical studies, stimulation was applied contralesionally (5/10 studies), ipsilesionally (3/10 studies) or bilaterally (2/10 studies). A range of behavioural and neurophysiological outcome measures demonstrated positive effects on swallowing function across studies.


There is promising proof of concept that non-invasive brain stimulation may provide a useful adjunct to post-stroke swallowing rehabilitation practice. Eventual transition of optimal paradigms into routine clinical practice will be accompanied by practical considerations in relation to local and national frameworks, e.g. the prescription and provision of treatment.


Respiratory Infections in Acute Stroke: Nasogastric Tubes and Immobility are Stronger Predictors than Dysphagia

Emily Brogan, Claire Langdon, Kim Brookes, Charley Budgeon, David Blacker


June 2014Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 340-345



Swallowing problems occur in 37–78 % of stroke patients. Evidence points to multiple factors contributing to the development of pneumonia in the first week post stroke, of which the presence of dysphagia is one. A heightened understanding of the very acute phase (first 7 days post stroke) is required to improve management of this population. We conducted a retrospective review of 536 stroke patients admitted to Australian hospitals in 2010. Data were collected on 37 clinical and demographic parameters. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Dysphagia was present in 58.5 % of admissions. For those patients remaining in the study for the full week there was a recovery rate from dysphagia of 30.5 %. Overall incidence of respiratory infection was 11 %. Respiratory infections developed in 17 % of patients with dysphagia. Impaired Glasgow Coma Scale, ischemic stroke, and significantly impaired mobility were associated with swallowing difficulties. Being nil by mouth and insertion of a nasogastric tube were significant predictors for respiratory infections. This study of a large cohort of acute stroke patients supports research indicating that aspiration pneumonia is multifactorial in nature and the incidence of respiratory infection is significant in the very acute stroke period.


Bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation for chronic stroke Dysphagia: a case series study

 TMS Stroke

Momosaki R, Abo M, Kakuda W.

Case Rep Neurol. 2014 Mar 20;6(1):60-7.


The purpose of this study was to clarify the safety and feasibility of a 6-day protocol of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation for chronic poststroke dysphagia. In-hospital treatment was provided to 4 poststroke patients (age at treatment: 56-80 years; interval between onset of stroke and treatment: 24-37 months) with dysphagia. Over 6 consecutive days, each patient received 10 sessions of rTMS at 3 Hz applied to the pharyngeal motor cortex bilaterally, followed by 20 min of intensive swallowing rehabilitationexercise. The swallowing function was evaluated by the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS), Modified Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MMASA), Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), laryngeal elevation delay time (LEDT) and Repetitive Saliva-Swallowing Test (RSST) on admission and at discharge. All patients completed the 6-day treatment protocol and none showed any adverse reactions throughout the treatment. The combination treatment improved laryngeal elevation delay time in all patients. Our proposed protocol of rTMS plus swallowing rehabilitation exercise seems to be safe and feasible for chronic stroke dysphagia, although its efficacy needs to be confirmed in a large number of patients.


Associação entre presença de resíduos faríngeos e escape oral posterior e a ocorrência de penetração e aspiração no Acidente Vascular Encefálico

dos Santos RR, Sales AV, Cola PC, Ribeiro PW, Jorge AG, Peres FM, Dantas RO, da Silva RG.

Codas. 2014 May-Jun;26(3):231-4



Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar a associação entre a ocorrência de escape oral posterior e a presença de resíduos faríngeos com penetração laríngea e/ou aspiração laringotraqueal no acidente vascular encefálico (AVE).


Estudo clínico transversal, retrospectivo e multicêntrico. Foram incluídos neste estudo 63 exames videofluoroscópicos de indivíduos pós-AVE isquêmico e disfagia orofaríngea do banco de dados dos serviços de três centros públicos de referência no atendimento do indivíduo disfágico, sendo 43 do gênero masculino e 20 do gênero feminino, faixa etária variando de 40 a 90 anos. Estes foram divididos em dois grupos. O Grupo I foi composto por exames de 35 indivíduos com presença de penetração e/ou aspiração laringotraqueal e o Grupo II, por exames de 28 indivíduos com ausência de penetração e/ou aspiração. Foram analisados exames de videofluoroscopia da deglutição para dividir os grupos e observou-se a presença de escape posterior e resíduos faríngeos.


Não houve associação entre os grupos com o escape oral posterior (χ2=1,65; p=0,30; φ2=0,02), porém houve associação entre resíduos faríngeos (χ2=12,86; p=0,003; φ2=0,20) e os grupos.


Diante dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que há associação entre a presença de resíduos faríngeos com a ocorrência de penetração com aspiração laringotraqueal em indivíduos pós-AVE.


NBS Stroke 1

Noninvasive brain stimulation may improve stroke-related dysphagia: a pilot study

Kumar S, Wagner CW, Frayne C, Zhu L, Selim M, Feng W, Schlaug G.

Stroke. 2011 Apr;42(4):1035-40.



Treatment options for stroke-related dysphagia are currently limited. In this study, we investigated whethernoninvasive brain stimulation in combination with swallowing maneuvers facilitates swallowing recovery in dysphagic stroke patients during early stroke convalescence.


Fourteen patients with subacute unilateral hemispheric infarction were randomized to anodal transcranial direct current stimulation(tDCS) versus sham stimulation to the sensorimotor cortical representation of swallowing in the unaffected hemisphere over the course of 5 consecutive days with concurrent standardized swallowing maneuvers. Severity of dysphagia was measured using a validated swallowing scale, Dysphagia Outcome and Severity scale, before the first and after the last session of tDCS or sham. The effect of tDCS was analyzed in a multivariate linear regression model using changes in Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale as the outcome variable after adjusting for the effects of other potential confounding variables such as the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Dysphagia Outcome and Severity scale scores at baseline, acute ischemic lesion volumes, patient age, and time from stroke onset to stimulation.


Patients who received anodal tDCS gained 2.60 points of improvement in Dysphagia Outcome and Severity scale scores compared to patients in the sham stimulation group who showed an improvement of 1.25 points (P=0.019) after controlling for the effects of other aforementioned variables. Six out 7 (86%) patients in tDCS stimulation group gained at least 2 points of improvement compared with 3 out 7 (43%) patients in the sham group (P=0.107).


Because brain stem swallowing centers have bilateral cortical innervations, measures that enhance cortical input and sensorimotor control of brain stem swallowing may be beneficial for dysphagia recovery.


Correlação entre os achados clínicos da deglutição e os achados da tomografia computadorizada de crânio em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico na fase aguda da doença

Anna Flávia Ferraz, Barros; Soraia Ramos Cabette, Fábio; Ana Maria, Furkim.
Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr.; 64(4); 1009-1014; 2006-12


O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é uma das principais causas de lesões permanentes em adultos, podendo provocar seqüelas motoras globais, alterações de fala, linguagem e deglutição. Durante a fase aguda, a detecção do risco de aspiração é fundamental para prevenir complicações pulmonares e permitir apropriadas intervenções terapêuticas, possibilitando alimentação por via oral precoce e segura. Na literatura, as correlações entre o distúrbio da deglutição e a localização da lesão em pacientes com AVC são inespecíficas. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar se existe correlação entre a localização das lesão vascular encefálica e a dificuldade de deglutição em pacientes com AVC isquêmico (AVCI). Foram incluídos 27 pacientes com AVCI que foram submetidos à avaliação clínica da deglutição no leito. Os resultados foram confrontados com resultados obtidos pela tomografia computadorizada do crânio, relacionados à localização das lesões. Na avaliação clínica, 48% dos pacientes apresentaram disfagia orofaríngea e 52% deglutição funcional. Em 84% dos pacientes disfágicos foram observadas alterações no território carotídeo, sendo 76% na artéria cerebral média (ACM). Nos pacientes com deglutição funcional 57% apresentaram alterações em ACM e 22% em artéria cerebral posterior. O hemisfério esquerdo foi afetado em 50% dos pacientes com deglutição funcional e em 46% dos disfágicos. Em conclusão, a localização hemisférica não está associada com a presença ou não de disfagia, porém a maioria dos pacientes disfágicos apresentou alterações no território carotídeo, notadamente na ACM.


Dysphagia after Stroke: an Overview

González-Fernández M, Ottenstein L, Atanelov L, Christian AB.

Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep. 2013 Sep;1(3):187-196.


Dysphagia affects the vast majority of acute stroke patients. Although it improves within 2 weeks for most, some face longstanding swallowing problems that place them at risk for pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, and significantly affect quality of life. This paper discusses the scope, the disease burden, and the tools available for screening and formal evaluation of dysphagia. The most common and recently developed treatment interventions that might be useful in the treatment of this population are discussed.


Disfagia e acidente vascular cerebral: relação entre o grau de severidade e o nível de comprometimento neurológico

Roberta Baldino, Itaquy; Samara Regina, Favero; Marlise de Castro, Ribeiro; Liselotte Menke, Barea; Sheila Tamanini de, Almeida; Renata, Mancopes.
J. Soc. Bras. Fonoaudiol.; 23(4); 385-389; 2011-12


O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de disfagia após acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico agudo durante as primeiras 48 horas de aparecimento dos sintomas para o estabelecimento de uma possível relação entre o nível de comprometimento neurológico e o grau de severidade da disfagia. Após a admissão hospitalar de emergência, três pacientes passaram por avaliação clínica neurológica, composta por exame físico geral, exame neurológico e aplicação da NationalInstitute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS); e avaliação clínica da deglutição por meio do Protocolo Fonoaudiológico de Avaliação do Risco para Disfagia (PARD). Dos pacientes avaliados, um apresentou deglutição funcional, com NIHSS 11, e dois apresentaram disfagia orofaríngea leve e moderada, sendo o NIHSS 15 e 19, respectivamente. O fluxo do serviço e a procura tardia dos pacientes por auxílio médico determinaram o baixo número de amostra. Os resultados obtidos confirmam os dados da literatura em relação à gravidade do paciente neurológico e à manifestação de disfagia.


Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency Has Potential to Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

Michael A. Crary, Giselle D. Carnaby, Isaac Sia, Anna KhannaMichael F. Waters

Stroke.2013; 44: 3452-3457


Background and Purpose—Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke.

Methods—In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis.

Results—SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke.

Conclusions—Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.


Swallowing screens after acute stroke: a systematic review

Schepp SK; Tirschwell DL; Miller RM; Longstreth WT
Stroke; 43(3): 869-71, 2012 Mar.

Background and Purpose—Swallowing screens after acute stroke identify those patients who do not need a formal swallowing evaluation and who can safely take food and medications by mouth. We conducted a systematic review to identify swallowing screening protocols that met basic requirements for reliability, validity, and feasibility.

Methods—We searched MEDLINE and supplemented results with references identified through other databases, journal tables of contents, and bibliographies. All relevant references were reviewed and evaluated with specific criteria.

Results—Of 35 protocols identified, 4 met basic quality criteria. These 4 had high sensitivities of ≥87% and high negative predictive values of ≥91% when a formal swallowing evaluation was used as the gold standard. Two protocols had greater sample sizes and more extensive reliability testing than the others.

Conclusions—We identified only 4 swallowing screening protocols for patients with acute stroke that met basic criteria. Cost-effectiveness of screening, including costs associated with false-positive results and impact of screening on morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay, requires elucidation.