Arquivo da tag: cancer de cabeça e pescoço

“Pharyngocise”: randomized controlled trial of preventative exercises to maintain muscle structure and swallowing function during head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy

Carnaby-Mann G; Crary MA; Schmalfuss I; Amdur R

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys;83(1):210-9, 2012 May 1.

PURPOSE: Dysphagia after chemoradiotherapy is common. The present randomized clinical trial studied the effectiveness of preventative behavioral intervention for dysphagia compared with the “usual care.” METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 58 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy were randomly assigned to usual care, sham swallowing intervention, or active swallowing exercises (pharyngocise). The intervention arms were treated daily during chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was muscle size and composition (determined by T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary outcomes included functional swallowing ability, dietary intake, chemosensory function, salivation, nutritional status, and the occurrence of dysphagia-related complications. RESULTS: The swallowing musculature (genioglossus, hyoglossuss, and mylohyoid) demonstrated less structural deterioration in the active treatment arm. The functional swallowing, mouth opening, chemosensory acuity, and salivation rate deteriorated less in the pharyngocise group. CONCLUSION: Patients completing a program of swallowing exercises during cancer treatment demonstrated superior muscle maintenance and functional swallowing ability.

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Association between severity of dysphagia and survival in patients with head and neck cancer

Shune SE; Karnell LH; Karnell MP; Van Daele DJ; Funk GF

Head Neck;34(6):776-84, 2012 Jun.

BACKGROUND: This study examined risk factors for dysphagia, a common and serious condition in patients with head and neck cancer, and the association between severity of dysphagia and survival. METHODS: Chart reviews were performed on patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January 2001 and April 2003, who had dysphagia diagnoses or swallowing evaluations. Regression analyses determined factors associated with dysphagia and the association between observed survival and severity of dysphagia. RESULTS: Almost 50% of the 407 patients had dysphagia. Risk factors included advanced stage, older age, female sex, and hypopharyngeal tumors. The most severe dysphagia ([L.] nil per os or “nothing by mouth” status), which was associated with lower survival rates, was the strongest independent predictor of survival. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing problems should be considered when determining appropriate cancer-directed treatment and posttreatment care. Because of dysphagia’s high incidence rate and association with survival, a speech-language pathologist should be involved to ensure routine diagnostic and therapeutic swallowing interventions.

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Does PEG use cause dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients?

Langmore S; Krisciunas GP; Miloro KV; Evans SR; Cheng DM

Dysphagia;27(2):251-9, 2012 Jun.

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) use is common in patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer to maintain weight and nutrition during treatment. However, the true effect of PEG use on weight maintenance and its potential impact on long-term dysphagia outcomes have not been adequately studied. This retrospective study looked at swallowing-related outcomes among patients who received prophylactic PEG vs. those who did not, and among patients who maintained oral diets vs. partial oral diets vs. those who were nil per os (NPO). Outcomes were assessed at the end of RT and at 3, 6, and 12 months post RT. A comprehensive review of patients’ medical charts for a 6-year period yielded 59 subjects with complete data. Results showed no difference in long-term percent weight change between the prophylactic PEG patients vs. all others, or between patients who, during RT, had oral diets vs. partial oral diets vs. NPO. However, those who did not receive prophylactic PEGs and those who maintained an oral or a partial oral diet during RT had significantly better diet outcomes at all times post RT. Dependence on a PEG may lead to adverse swallowing ability in post-irradiated head and neck cancer patients possibly due to decreased use of the swallowing musculature.

 

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Eating again: a physician’s personal experience after laryngectomy

Brook I

Nutr Cancer;64(5):635-6, 2012.

This article presents the author’s personal experiences in eating again after becoming a laryngectomee. He was diagnosed with hypopharyngeal carcinoma and underwent total laryngectomy with a free flap reconstruction. The personal story is told in the hope that nutritionists and other health care providers will realize the difficult challenges in obtaining adequate nutrition that a patient diagnosed with cancer who undergoes laryngectomy must face. These include the effects of radiation treatment and surgery, which create functional and anatomical changes that make swallowing difficult.

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Swallowing after non-surgical treatment (radiation therapy / radiochemotherapy protocol) of laryngeal cancer

PORTAS, Juliana et al.

Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) [online]. 2011, vol.77, n.1, pp. 96-101.

Radiation therapy and radiochemotherapy protocols can cause swallowing difficulties. AIM: To evaluate swallowing in patients undergoing radiation therapy and radiochemotherapy protocol only for the treatment of laryngeal tumors. METHODS: A prospective study of 20 patients, with a mean age of 62 years, at the end of oncological therapy. Six patients (30%) underwent radiation therapy, and 14 patients (70%) underwent combined therapy. The mean time between treatment and an evaluation of swallowing was 8.5 months. Videofluoroscopy was done to assess the preparatory, oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. RESULTS: All patients had only an oral diet. Normal swallowing was present in only 25% of patients. The swallowing videofluoroscopic examination identified the following changes: bolus formation (85%), bolus ejection (60%), oral cavity stasis (55%), changes in the onset of the pharyngeal phase (100%), decreased laryngeal elevation (65%), and hypopharyngeal stasis (80%). Laryngeal penetration was observed in 25% of the cases; 40% presented tracheal aspiration. The grade of penetration/aspiration was mild in 60% of cases. Aspiration was silent in 35% of patients. Although 75% of patients had dysphagia, only 25% complained of swallowing difficulties. CONCLUSION: Patients with laryngeal cancer that underwent radiation therapy/combined treatment can present changes in all swallowing phases, or may be asymptomatic.

Palavras-chave : deglutition disorders laryngeal neoplasms; radiotherapy; combined modality therapy.

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Deglutição após tratamento não cirúrgico (radioterápico/ radioquimioterápico) do câncer de laringe

PORTAS, Juliana et al.

Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) [online]. 2011, vol.77, n.1, pp. 96-101.

O tratamento radioterápico/ radioquimioterápico para tumores de laringe pode ocasionar sequelas na deglutição. OBJETIVO: Avaliar características da deglutição de pacientes tratados por radioterapia/ radioquimioterapia para tumores de laringe. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 20 indivíduos, idade média de 62 anos, após término do tratamento oncológico. Destes, 6 (30%) foram tratados por radioterapia exclusiva e 14 (70%) por radioquimioterapia. O tempo médio decorrido do tratamento médico ao momento da avaliação fonoaudiológica foi de 8,5 meses. Foi realizada avaliação videofluoroscópica da deglutição orofaríngea e analisados eventos das fases preparatória, oral e faríngea da deglutição. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes se alimentavam com via oral exclusiva. Apenas 25% da amostra apresentavam deglutição dentro dos limites da normalidade. A videofluoroscopia da deglutição identificou os seguintes eventos alterados: formação do bolo (85%), ejeção do bolo (60%), estases na cavidade oral (55%), alteração no início da fase faríngea (100%), redução da elevação da laringe (65%) e estase em hipofaringe (80%). A penetração laríngea foi diagnosticada em 25% dos casos e 40% penetrações seguidas de aspirações traqueais. O grau de penetração/ aspiração foi considerado discreto em 60%, porém em 35% da amostra a aspiração foi silenciosa. Embora 75% da amostra apresentassem algum grau de disfagia, apenas 25% dos pacientes referiam queixa de deglutição. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com câncer de laringe tratados com radioterapia/ radioquimioterapia podem apresentar alterações em todas as fases da deglutição, mesmo na ausência de sintomas.

Palavras-chave : neoplasias laríngeas; radioterapia; terapia combinada; transtornos de deglutição.

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