Arquivo da tag: dysphagia

Identification of risk groups for oropharyngeal dysphagia in hospitalized patients in a university hospital

CoDAS vol.26 no.1 São Paulo Jan./Feb. 2014

Daiane Bassi 1 , Ana Maria Furkim 1 , Cristiane Alves Silva 2 , Mara Sérgia Pacheco Honório Coelho 1 , Maria Rita Pimenta Rolim 1 , Maria Luiza Aires de Alencar 1 , Marcos José Machado 1
)Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – UFSC – Florianópolis (SC), Brazil
2)Fundação Catarinense de Educação Especial – FCEE – São José (SC), Brazil

Purpose:

To identify risk groups for oropharyngeal dysphagia in hospitalized patients in a university hospital.

Methods:

The study was design as an exploratory cross-sectional with quantitative data analysis. The researched population consisted of 32 patients admitted to the medical clinic at the university hospital. Patient history data were collected, followed by a universal swallowing screening which included functional feeding assessment, to observe clinical signs and symptoms of dysphagia, and assessment of nutritional status through anthropometric data and laboratory tests.

Results:

Of the total sample, the majority of patients was male over 60 years. The most common comorbidities related to patients with signs and symptoms of dysphagia were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction. The food consistency that showed higher presence of clinical signs of aspiration was pudding and the predominant sign was wet voice.

Conclusion:

There is a high incidence of risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia in hospitalized patients and an even higher rate of hospitalized patients with nutritional deficits or already malnourished. Hospitalized patients with respiratory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure and patients with xerostomia were indicated as risk group for oropharyngeal dysphagia.

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Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency Has Potential to Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke.

Stroke. 2013 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke.

METHODS:

In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis.

RESULTS:

SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke.

CONCLUSIONS:

Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

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Dysphagia as a predictor of outcome and transition to palliative care among middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke patients

San Luis CO, Staff I, Fortunato GJ, McCullough LD.

BMC Palliat Care. 2013 May 10;12(1):21

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) territory strokes can be disabling and may leave patients unable to swallow safely. Decisions regarding artificial nutrition and goals of care often arise in patients with severe strokes leading to dysphagia. This study determined some predictors of early transition to palliative level of care among patients with acute ischemic MCA stroke with dysphagia.

METHODS:

This is a retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical data of patients presenting to Hartford Hospital with an acute ischemic stroke between January 2005-December 2010 were gathered utilizing the Stroke Center at Hartford Hospital Database. The 236 patients included were divided into “early transition” and “not transitioned” to palliative care cohorts. Primary outcome was transition to palliative care. Factors that were significantly associated with an early transition to palliative level of care in univariate analysis were then entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify potential independent predictors of early transition to palliative level of care. The significance level was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS:

79 patients (34%) were transitioned to palliative level of care after failing the first swallow evaluation within a median of 3 days. Factors predictive of an early transition to palliative level of care after multivariate logistic regression analysis included advancing age (p < 0.001; OR: 1.10; 95% CI :1.056-1.155) , left MCA infarct (p = 0.039; OR: 0.417; 95% CI:0.182-0.956), a high NIHSS score on admission (p = 0.017; OR: 3.038; 95% CI: 1.22-7.555), administration of intra-arterial tPA (p < 0.001; OR: 7.106; 955 CI 2.541-19.873) and the inability to be assessed on the 1st swallow evaluation (p < 0.001; OR 0.053; 95% CI 0.022-0.131).

CONCLUSIONS:

The severity of dysphagia influences early transition to palliative level of care in acute stroke patients. Independent predictors of an early transition to palliative level of care among patients with an acute MCA territory stroke and dysphagia included advancing age, a left MCA infarct, a high NIHSS score on admission, administration of intra-arterial tPA and the inability to be assessed on the 1st swallow evaluation. This information may guide discussions with families of patients with MCA territory strokes regarding artificial nutrition and goals of care.

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Cough reflex testing in Dysphagia following stroke: a randomized controlled trial

 

Miles A, Zeng IS, McLauchlan H, Huckabee ML.

J Clin Med Res. 2013 Jun;5(3):222-33. doi: 10.4021/jocmr1340w. Epub 2013 Apr 23.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Significant health issues and service delivery costs are associated with post-stroke pneumonia related to dysphagia. Silent aspiration is known to increase pneumonia and mortality in this population. The utility of cough reflex testing (CRT) for reducing pneumonia in acute stroke patients was the subject of this randomised, controlled trial.

METHODS:

Patients referred for swallowing evaluation (N = 311) were assigned to either 1) a control group receiving standard evaluation or 2) an experimental group receiving standard evaluation with CRT. Participants in the experimental group were administered nebulised citric acid with test results contributing to clinical decisions. Outcomes for both groups were measured by pneumonia rates at 3 months post evaluation and other clinical indices of swallowing management.

RESULTS:

Analysis of the data identified no significant differences between groups in pneumonia rate (P = 0.38) or mortality (P = 0.15). Results of CRT were shown to influence diet recommendations (P < 0.0001) and referrals for instrumental assessment (P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite differences in clinical management between groups, the end goal of reducing pneumonia in post stroke dysphagia was not achieved.

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The significance of accumulated oropharyngeal secretions and swallowing frequency in predicting aspiration.

Dysphagia. 1996 Spring;11(2):99-103.

This study retrospectively investigated the value of both endoscopically visible oropharyngeal secretions in the hypopharynx and swallowing frequency in the prediction of aspiration of food and liquid. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) was performed on a total of 69 individuals that included hospitalized elderly, nonhospitalized elderly, and young normal subjects. A four-level rating scale for determining the severity of accumulated oropharyngeal secretions was developed and employed to rate subjects prior to the presentation of food or liquid during the FEES. Spontaneous dry swallows were also counted during the observation period of the FEES. It was found that the accumulation of endoscopically visible oropharyngeal secretions located within the laryngeal vestibule was highly predictive of aspiration of food or liquid. There were significantly fewer spontaneous swallows in hospitalized subjects when compared with nonhospitalized subjects. There was also a significant decrease in the frequency of spontaneous swallows in aspirating hospitalized subjects when compared with nonaspirating hospitalized subjects. Results are discussed in terms of integrating this information with clinical bedside examination techniques.

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The influence of sour taste on Dysphagia in brain injury: blind study

Lee KL, Kim DY, Kim WH, Kim EJ, Lee WS, Hahn SJ, Kang MS, Ahn SY.

Ann Rehabil Med. 2012 Jun;36(3):365-70. doi: 10.5535/arm.2012.36.3.365. Epub 2012 Jun 30.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To verify the influence of sour taste on swallowing and the presence of reflex cough when sour material was swallowed in patients with dysphagia secondary to brain injury.

METHOD:

Fifty dysphagic brain injury patients who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were recruited. The patients who had shown severe aspiration at 2 ml of liquid were excluded. The dysphagic patients were given 5 ml each of a sour tasting liquid (SOUR) and a thin liquid barium (LIQUID) in random order. An expert analyzed the result of VFSS by reviewing recorded videotapes. Analysis components consisted of the Penetration-Aspiration-Scale (PAS) score, oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), pharyngeal delay time (PDT) and the reflex cough presence.

RESULTS:

The PAS score for SOUR was significantly lower than the one for LIQUID (p=0.03). The mean OTT for SOUR was significantly shortened compared to that for LIQUID (p=0.03). The mean PTT and PDT were also shortened in SOUR, although the differences were not statistically significant (p=0.26 and p=0.32, respectively). There was no significant difference between SOUR and LIQUID regarding the presence of reflex cough (p=1.00).

CONCLUSION:

The sour taste could enhance sensorimotor feedback in the oropharynx, thus lowering the chances of penetration-aspiration caused by shortening of the oropharyngeal passage times. There was no significant difference in the presence of reflex cough produced between LIQUID and SOUR.

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The effects of removable denture on swallowing

Son DS, Seong JW, Kim Y, Chee Y, Hwang CH.

Ann Rehabil Med. 2013 Apr;37(2):247-53. doi: 10.5535/arm.2013.37.2.247. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the relationship between removable dentures and swallowing and describe risks.

METHODS:

Twenty-four patients with removable dentures who were referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were enrolled. We evaluated the change of swallowing function using VFSS before and after the removal of the removable denture. The masticatory performance by Kazunori’s method, sensation of oral cavity by Christian’s method, underlying disease, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for level of consciousness were collected. Functional dysphagia scales, including the oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), percentage of oral residue, percentage of pharyngeal residue, oropharyngeal swallow efficiency (OPSE), and presence of aspiration were measured.

RESULTS:

Four patients dropped out and 20 patients were analyzed (stroke, 13 patients; pneumonia, 3 patients; and others, 4 patients). The mean age was 73.3±11.4 years. There were significant differences before and after the removal of the denture for the OTT. OTT was significantly less after the removal of the denture (8.87 vs. 4.38 seconds, p=0.01). OPSE increased remarkably after the removal of the denture, but without significance (18.24%/sec vs. 25.26%/sec, p=0.05). The OTT and OPSE, while donning a removable denture, were correlated with the masticatory performance (OTT, p=0.04; OPSE, p=0.003) and sensation of oral cavity (OTT, p=0.006; OPSE, p=0.007).

CONCLUSION:

A removable denture may have negative effects on swallowing, especially OTT and OPSE. These affects may be caused by impaired sensation of the oral cavity or masticatory performance induced by the removable denture.

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