Arquivo da tag: elderly

The Effect of Lingual Resistance Training Interventions on Adult Swallow Function: A Systematic Review

Smaoui, S., Langridge, A. & Steele, C.M.

Dysphagia (2019).

Imagem retirada da Internet


Lingual resistance training has been proposed as an intervention to improve decreased tongue pressure strength and endurance in patients with dysphagia. However, little is known about the impact of lingual resistance training on swallow physiology. This systematic review scrutinizes the available evidence regarding the effects of lingual resistance training on swallowing function in studies using Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Studies (VFSS) with adults. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria and underwent detailed review for study quality, data extraction, and planned meta-analysis. Included studies applied this intervention to a stroke and brain injury patient populations or to healthy participants, applied different training protocols, and used a number of outcome measures, making it difficult to generalize results. Lingual resistance training protocols included anterior and posterior tongue strengthening, accuracy training, and effortful press against hard palate with varying treatment durations. VFSS protocols typically included a thin barium stimulus along with one other consistency to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Swallowing measures included swallow safety, efficiency, and temporal measures. Temporal measures significantly improved in one study, while safety improvements showed mixed results across studies. Reported improvements in swallowing efficiency were limited to reductions in thin liquid barium residue in two studies. Overall, the evidence regarding the impact of lingual resistance training for dysphagia is mixed. Meta-analysis was not possible due to differences in methods and outcome measurements across studies. Reporting all aspects of training and details regarding VFSS protocols is crucial for the reproducibility of these interventions.

Future investigations should focus on completing robust analyses of swallowing kinematics and function following tongue pressure training to determine efficacy for swallowing function.


Oropharyngeal dysphagia in an elderly post-operative hip fracture population: a prospective cohort study

Love AL, Cornwell PL, Whitehouse SL.

Age Ageing. 2013 Apr 2



normal ageing processes impact on oropharyngeal swallowing function placing older adults at risk of developing oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). Anecdotal clinical experience has observed that older patients recovering from hip fracture surgery commonly develop OD post-operatively.


to document the presence of OD following hip fracture surgery, and the factors associated with OD.


one hundred and eighty-one patients with a mean age of 83 years (range: 65-103) admitted to a specialised orthogeriatric unit were assessed for OD post-surgery for hip fracture. Pre-admission, intra-operative and post-operative factors were examined to determine their relationship with the presence of OD.


OD was found to be present post-operatively in 34% (n = 61) of the current population. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed the presence of pre-existing neurological and respiratory medical co-morbidities, presence of post-operative delirium, age and living in a residential aged care facility prior to hospital admission to be associated with the post-operative OD.


these results highlight that OD is present in a large number of the older hip fracture population. Early identification of OD has important implications for the provision of timely dysphagia management that may prevent secondary complications and potentially reduce the hospital length of stay.


Severe brain atrophy in the elderly as a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection

Okada R, Okada T, Okada A, Muramoto H, Katsuno M, Sobue G, Hamajima N

November 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 481 – 487, DOI:

Background: The purpose of this study is to determine whether elderly subjects with severe brain atrophy, which is associated with neurodegeneration and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), are more susceptible to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), including pneumonia.
Methods: The severity of brain atrophy was assessed by computed tomography in 51 nursing home residents aged 60–96 years. The incidence of LRTI, defined by body temperature ≥ 38.0°C, presence of two or more respiratory symptoms, and use of antibiotics, was determined over 4 years. The incidence of LRTI was compared according to the severity and type of brain atrophy.
Results: The incidence rate ratio of LRTI was significantly higher (odds ratio 4.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18–17.93, fully adjusted P = 0.028) and the time to the first episode of LRTI was significantly shorter (log-rank test, P = 0.019) in subjects with severe brain atrophy in any lobe. Frontal and parietal lobe atrophy was associated with a significantly increased risk of LRTI, while temporal lobe atrophy, ventricular dilatation, and diffuse white matter lesions did not influence the risk of LRTI.
Conclusion: Elderly subjects with severe brain atrophy are more susceptible to LRTI, possibly as a result of neurodegeneration causing dysphagia and silent aspiration. Assessing the severity of brain atrophy might be useful to identify subjects at increased risk of respiratory infections in a prospective manner.


Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

Nogueira D, Reis E.

Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:221-7. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S39452. Epub 2013 Feb 19.



The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes.


The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST). For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test.


The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age, education, the Geriatric Depression Scale score, 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, and diagnosed conditions (such as neurological disorder, dementia, and cardiorespiratory problems) as explaining variables.


Results showed a high prevalence of dysphagia signs amongst a nursing home population. For the purpose of the present study, both a subjective and an objective assessment were applied. Results pointed to a significant statistical relation between objective and subjective measures, thus indicating that a self-perception test should be included in the assessment of swallowing disorders in a nursing home population. Notwithstanding, it should not be used as a single or principal measure as it is influenced by the individuals’ cognitive condition.


The effects of aspiration status, liquid type, and bolus volume on pharyngeal peak pressure in healthy older adults

Butler SG; Stuart A; Wilhelm E; Rees C; Williamson J; Kritchevsky S

Dysphagia;26(3):225-31, 2011 Sep.

The reasons for aspiration in healthy adults remain unknown. Given that the pharyngeal phase of swallowing is a key component of the safe swallow, it was hypothesized that healthy older adults who aspirate are likely to generate less pharyngeal peak pressures when swallowing. Accordingly, pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter pressures were examined as a function of aspiration status (i.e., nonaspirator vs. aspirator), sensor location (upper vs. lower pharynx), liquid type (i.e., water vs. milk), and volume (i.e., 5 vs. 10 ml) in healthy older adults. Manometric measurements were acquired with a 2.1-mm catheter during flexible endoscopic evaluation. Participants (N = 19, mean age = 79.2 years) contributed 28 swallows; during 8 swallows, simultaneous manometric measurements of upper and lower pharyngeal and upper esophageal pressures were obtained. Pharyngeal manometric peak pressure was significantly less for aspirators (mean = 82, SD = 31 mmHg) than for nonaspirators (mean = 112, SD = 20 mmHg), and upper pharyngeal pressures (mean = 85, SD = 32 mmHg) generated less pressure than lower pharyngeal pressures (mean = 116, SD = 38 mmHg). Manometric measurements vary with respect to aspiration status and sensor location. Lower pharyngeal pressures in healthy older adults may predispose them to aspiration.


Measuring elderly dysphagic patients’ performance in eating–a review

Hansen T; Kjaersgaard A; Faber J

Disabil Rehabil;33(21-22):1931-40, 2011.

PURPOSE: This review aims to identify psychometrically robust assessment tools suitable for measuring elderly dysphagic patients’ performance in eating for use in clinical practice and research. METHOD: Electronic databases, related citations and references were searched to identify assessment tools integrating the complexity of the eating process. Papers were selected according to criteria defined a priori. Data were extracted regarding characteristics of the assessment tools and the evidence of reliability, validity and responsiveness. Quality appraisal was undertaken using developed criteria concerning the study design, the statistics used for the psychometric evaluation and the reported values. RESULTS: Eight of fourteen identified assessment tools met the inclusion criteria. Three assessment tools were specific to dementia, two were specific to stroke and three targeted a range of neurological and geriatric conditions. The rigor of the assessment tools’ psychometric properties varied from no evidence available to excellent evidence. Only two assessment tools were rated adequate to excellent. CONCLUSION: ‘The Minimal Eating Observation Form-Version II’ to be used for screening and ‘The McGill Ingestive Skills Assessment’ to be used for treatment planning and monitoring appeared to be psychometrically robust for clinical practice and research. However, further research on their psychometric properties is needed.


Laryngotracheal separation procedure for elderly patients

Watanabe K; Nakaya M; Miyano K; Abe K
Am J Otolaryngol; 32(2): 156-8, 2011 Mar-Apr.
A procedure for laryngotracheal separation was performed on 5 elderly patients in poor general condition to prevent habitual aspiration pneumonia. Intractable aspiration was relieved in all the patients with no major postoperative complications. In this intervention, a modification of the procedure previously reported, the anterior part of the tracheal and cricoid cartilage was removed, and the subglottic mucosa was sutured to fashion a blind pouch. This procedure could be adjusted even in cases of severe laryngoptosis or after high tracheostomy. Laryngotracheal separation is likely to be useful as a simple and safe procedure even for older patients. If this comes to be, it will serve as a valuable intervention in today’s aging society.

Viscosity changes in thickened water due to the addition of highly prescribed drugs in geriatrics

N. Garin, J. T. De Pourcq, D. Cardona, R. Martín-Venegas, I. Gich, J. Cardenete, M. A. Mangues

Nutr. Hosp., Ago 2012, vol.27, no.4, p.1298-1303. ISSN 0212-1611


Introduction: Dysphagia is a swallowing disorder with a high incidence in the geriatric patient related with an increased risk for undernutrition and pneumonia due to bronchial aspiration. In this condition, it is usual to add commercial thickeners in liquids, as well as the addition of drugs in this mixture to improve their administration. However, there are no studies regarding the possible change in viscosity produced by their addition.
Objectives: To assess the change in viscosity of water thickened with commercial products by adding the drugs frequently used in elderly patients.
Methods: Samples of water mixed with the commercial thickener Resource® (modified corn starch) or Nutilis® (modified corn starch, maltodextrin, and gums: tara, xhantan, and guar) to achieve an intermediate consistence as “honey”. The viscosity of these samples was measured as well as for similar samples to which one of the following drugs was added: galantamine, rivastigmin, ciprofloxacin, cholecalciferol, memantine, fosfomycin, calcium, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Results: In the samples with Resource® thickener we observed decreased viscosity by adding galantamine, memantine, fosfomycin or calcium, and increased viscosity with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The viscosity of the samples with Nutilis® decreased with galantamine, rivastigmine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and calcium.
Conclusion: The viscosity of water with commercial thickeners may be affected by some drugs or their preservatives, which may influence the swallowing capability. It is recommended to perform further in vitro and in vivo studies in order to adjust these formulations if necessary.


Lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is impaired in older patients with dysphagia

Autor(es): Besanko LK; Burgstad CM; Mountifield R; Andrews JM; Heddle R; Checklin H; Fraser RJ
Fonte: World J Gastroenterol; 17(10): 1326-31, 2011 Mar 14.
AIM: To characterize the effects of age on the mechanisms underlying the common condition of esophageal dysphagia in older patients, using detailed manometric analysis. METHODS: A retrospective case-control audit was performed on 19 patients aged ≥ 80 years (mean age 85 ± 0.7 year) who underwent a manometric study for dysphagia (2004-2009). Data were compared with 19 younger dysphagic patients (32 ± 1.7 years). Detailed manometric analysis performed prospectively included basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure (BLESP), pre-swallow and nadir LESP, esophageal body pressures and peristaltic duration, during water swallows (5 mL) in right lateral (RL) and upright (UR) postures and with solids. Data are mean ± SE; a P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Elderly dysphagic patients had higher BLESP than younger patients (23.4 ± 3.8 vs 14.9 ± 1.2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Pre-swallow LESP was elevated in the elderly in both postures (RL: 1 and 4 s P = 0.019 and P = 0.05; UR: P < 0.05 and P = 0.05) and solids (P < 0.01). In older patients, LES nadir pressure was higher with liquids (RL: 2.3 ± 0.6 mmHg vs 0.7 ± 0.6 mmHg, P < 0.05; UR: 3.5 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 1.6 ± 0.5 mmHg, P = 0.01) with shorter relaxation after solids (7.9 ± 1.5 s vs 9.7 ± 0.4 s, P = 0.05). No age-related differences were seen in esophageal body pressures or peristalsis duration. CONCLUSION: Basal LES pressure is elevated and swallow-induced relaxation impaired in elderly dysphagic patients. Its contribution to dysphagia and the effects of healthy ageing require further investigation.

Swallowing Disorders in the Elderly

Joshua S. Schindler, James H. Kelly

Article first published online: 2 JAN 2009

DOI: 10.1097/00005537-200204000-0000

The Laryngoscope, Volume 112, Issue 4, pages 589–602, April 2002


Changes that occur as a natural part of senescence in the complex action of deglutition predispose us to dysphagia and aspiration. As the “baby-boomers” begin to age, the onset of swallowing difficulties will begin to manifest in a greater number of our population. Recent advances in the evaluation of normal and abnormal swallowing make possible more precise anatomical and physiological diagnoses. Coupled with an understanding of swallowing physiology, such detailed evaluation allows greater opportunity to safely manage dysphagia with directed therapy and appropriate surgical intervention. The current study is a discussion of the changes that occur in deglutition with normal aging, contemporary evaluation of swallowing function, and some of the common causes of dysphagia in elderly patients.