Arquivo da tag: Gastrostomia

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: effect on survival

Spataro R; Ficano L; Piccoli F; La Bella V

J Neurol Sci;304(1-2):44-8, 2011 May 15.

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is offered to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with severe dysphagia. Immediate benefits of PEG are adequate food intake and weight stabilization. However, the impact of PEG on survival is still uncertain. In this work we retrospectively evaluated the effect of PEG on survival in a cohort of ALS patients followed in a tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2007, 150 dysphagic ALS patients were followed until death or tracheostomy. PEG was placed in 76 patients who accepted the procedure and survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier life-table method. RESULTS: In ALS patients submitted to PEG, no major complications were observed. Total median survival time from symptom onset was 38 months for PEG users as compared to 32 months for the remaining dysphagic patients who declined the procedure (p=0.05). Among bulbar-onset patients, PEG users showed a median survival time longer than those with no PEG (28 months vs. 25 months), even though the difference was not significant. Conversely, dysphagic spinal-onset patients with PEG lived significantly longer than those who refused this palliative care (44 months vs. 36 months, p=0.046). Survival in patients with PEG was not affected by the severity of the respiratory impairment, as measured by forced vital capacity. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that PEG improves survival in dysphagic ALS patients, with few side effects. The procedure is safe and applicable even to patients with impaired respiratory function. PEG remains a milestone in palliative care in dysphagic ALS patients.

ACESSE O PERIÓDICO

A gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica na paliação nutricional do câncer do esôfago proximal sem possibilidade de colocação de prótese

Grilo, Ana; Santos, Carla Adriana; Fonseca, Jorge
Arq Gastroenterol; 49(3): 227-231, July-Sept. 2012. tab.

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: O câncer do esôfago é frequentemente diagnosticado num estádio avançado, com mau prognóstico. A maioria dos pacientes com câncer avançado do esôfago sofre de disfagia que contribui para a desnutrição e perda de peso. A colocação de endopróteses é uma forma de paliação muito difundida. Contudo, as próteses muito próximas do esfíncter esofágico superior são mal toleradas pelos doentes, não sendo uma opção adequada se o câncer for muito proximal. Habitualmente, as recomendações para gastrostomia percutânea não incluem a paliação nutricional nestes doentes, mas a gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica pode ser a melhor forma de suporte nutricional no câncer avançado.
OBJETIVO: Avaliação retrospectiva dos doentes com disfagia por câncer avançado do esôfago em que a gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica foi a forma de paliação nutricional, sem expectativa de retomar a ingestão oral.
MÉTODO: Selecionaram-se doentes adultos com câncer irressecável do esôfago, com confirmação histológica e com localização proximal, impedindo a colocação de prótese, com a radioterapia e quimioterapia paliativas, usando a gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica para a nutrição entérica. Avaliaram-se dados clínicos e laboratoriais, incluindo o sucesso da gastrostomia, complicações e sobrevida após a gastrostomia e evolução do índice de massa corporal, albumina, transferrina e colesterol.
RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 17 homens com carcinoma epidermoide no estádio III ou IV, com média de idade de 60,9 anos. A maioria consumia tabaco e bebidas alcoólicas. Todos foram submetidos a radioterapia ou quimioterapia. A gastrostomia endoscópica foi bem-sucedida em todos, embora nove tenham necessitado de dilatação prévia. A maioria foi gastrostomizada nos 2 meses subsequentes ao diagnóstico. Ocorreu uma “buried bumper syndrome”, resolvida com substituição do tubo e quatro complicações menores. Não houve implantação de metástases, nem mortalidade associada ao procedimento. Dois doentes foram perdidos e 12 morreram. Três doentes estão vivos 6, 14 e 17 meses após a gastrostomia e ainda estão aumentando a sobrevida média. Os valores médios do índice de massa corporal e da avaliação laboratorial mantiveram-se estáveis 1 e 3 meses após a gastrostomia.
CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com câncer avançado do esôfago, em que só a terapêutica paliativa é possível, o suporte nutricional é facilmente obtido com gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica, permitindo aos pacientes permanecer em suas casas por um longo período. A nutrição por gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica deveria ser considerada, por rotina, como a opção definitiva para paliação nutricional em pacientes com câncer do esôfago proximal em que a colocação de prótese não é possível.

LEIA O ARTIGO NA ÍNTEGRA

Enteral tube feeding for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Katzberg HD; Benatar M
Cochrane Database Syst Rev; (1): CD004030, 2011.
Artigo [MEDLINE PMID: 21249659 ] Idioma: Inglês
BACKGROUND: Enteral feeding (tube feeding) is offered to many people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease experiencing difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) and maintaining adequate nutritional intake leading to weight loss.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement or other tube feeding placement on: (1) survival;(2) nutritional status; (3) quality of life;(4) minor and major complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Trials Register (24 November 2009), MEDLINE (from January 1966 to September 2009), and EMBASE (from January 1980 to September 2009) for all papers on enteral tube feeding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. The results were screened to identify randomised controlled trials and to identify non-randomized studies that might be worthy of review and discussion. We checked references in published articles and enlisted personal communications to identify any additional references.
SELECTION CRITERIA: A priori selection criteria included randomised and quasi-randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or other feeding tube placement. Since no such trials were discovered, all prospective and retrospective controlled studies were reviewed in the ‘Background’ or ‘Discussion’ sections of the review.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently assessed study design and extracted data. We considered the following outcomes: (1) survival rate in months (of primary interest), (2) nutritional status measured by weight change, change in body mass index, or other quantitative index of nutritional status, (3) self-perceived quality of life and (4) safety of the procedure as indicated by minor and major complications of surgical or radiological guided PEG tube insertion.
MAIN RESULTS: We found no randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy of enteral tube feeding with those people who continued to eat orally, without enteral feeding. We summarized the results of retrospective and prospective studies in the ‘Discussion’ section.
AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: There are no randomised controlled trials to indicate whether enteral tube feeding is beneficial compared to continuation of oral feeding for any of the outcome measures. The ‘best’ evidence to date suggests a survival advantage for some people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease, but these conclusions are tentative. Evidence for improved nutrition is also incomplete but tentatively favorable.  Quality of life has been addressed in studies and needs more attention. Based on a number of recent non-randomized studies comparing surgical and radiographic approaches to feeding tube insertion these two procedures for PEG tube insertion appear to be equivalent.