Arquivo da tag: nutrition

Emerging understanding of dosimetric factors impacting on dysphagia and nutrition following radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer

 

Cartmill B, Cornwell P, Ward E, Davidson W, Nund R, Bettington C, Rahbari RM, Poulsen M, Porceddu S.

Head Neck. 2012 Jun 23. doi: 10.1002/hed.23040. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Research has reported relationships between 3-dimensional (3D) radiation dose to head and neck structures and consequential swallowing/nutritional outcomes. However, this evidence is preliminary. The current study aimed to identify which reported dose constraints identified functional impairment at 6 months posttreatment.

METHODS:

Dose constraints with reported relationships to swallowing and nutrition were identified through a systematic literature review. Dose-volume histograms for 12 patients with T1-T3 oropharyngeal cancer treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy determined dosages delivered to specific structures. Doses were examined in relation to published dose constraints and the swallowing and nutritional outcomes at 6 months posttreatment.

RESULTS:

In all, 66% of the reported mean, maximum, and partial doses to 8 structures correctly identified swallowing and nutrition outcomes at 6 months.

CONCLUSION:

The relationships observed between known dosimetric constraints and functional outcomes highlight the potential for dosimetric data to assist in prognosis and treatment. Systematic research is required to refine dosimetric parameters and the impact on functional outcomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012.

ACESSE O PERIÓDICO

Dysphagia, Nutrition, and Hydration in Ischemic Stroke Patients at Admission and Discharge from Acute Care

Michael A. Crary, Jamie L. Humphrey, Giselle Carnaby-Mann, Raam Sambandam and Leslie Miller, et al.

Dysphagia, Online First™, 9 June 2012

Abstract

Dysphagia may predispose stroke patients toward undernutrition and hydration. These comorbidities increase patient risks for reduced functional outcome and short-term mortality. Despite this impact, available information on relationships among dysphagia, nutrition, and hydration status in acute stroke is limited and conflicted. This study evaluated nutrition and hydration status in ischemic stroke patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia at admission and at discharge from acute care. Sixty-seven patients admitted to the stroke unit in a tertiary-care hospital provided data for this study. On the day of hospital admission and upon discharge or at 7 days post admission, serum biochemical measures were obtained for nutrition (prealbumin) and hydration status (BUN/Cr). Clinical evaluation for dysphagia, nutrition status, and stroke severity were completed an average of 1.4 days following hospital admission. Dysphagia was identified in 37 % of the cohort. At admission 32 % of patients demonstrated malnutrition based on prealbumin levels and 53 % demonstrated evidence of dehydration based on BUN/Cr levels. No differences in nutrition status were attributed to dysphagia. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly higher BUN/Cr levels (greater dehydration) than patients without dysphagia at admission and at discharge. Dehydration at both admission and discharge was associated with dysphagia, clinical nutrition status, and stroke severity. Results of this study support prior results indicating that dysphagia is not associated with poor nutrition status during the first week post stroke. Dehydration status is associated with dysphagia during this period. The results have implications for future confirmatory research and for clinical management of dysphagia in the acute stroke period.

Interventions for dysphagia and nutritional support in acute and subacute stroke

Geeganage C, Beavan J, Ellender S, Bath PM.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Oct 17;10:CD000323. doi:

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dysphagia (swallowing problems) are common after stroke and can cause chest infection and malnutrition. Dysphagic, and malnourished, stroke patients have a poorer outcome.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of dysphagia (swallowing therapy), and nutritional and fluid supplementation, in patients with acute and subacute (within six months from onset) stroke.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to July 2011), EMBASE (1980 to July 2011), CINAHL (1982 to July 2011) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) (1990 to July 2011). We also searched the reference lists of relevant trials and review articles, searched Current Controlled Trials and contacted researchers (July 2011). For the previous version of this review we contacted the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists and equipment manufacturers.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in dysphagic stroke patients, and nutritional supplementation in all stroke patients, where the stroke occurred within six months of enrolment.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted data, and resolved any disagreements through discussion with a third review author. We used random-effects models to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and mean differences (MD). The primary outcome was functional outcome (death or dependency, or death or disability) at the end of the trial.

MAIN RESULTS:

We included 33 studies involving 6779 participants.Swallowing therapy: acupuncture, drug therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, pharyngeal electrical stimulation, physical stimulation (thermal, tactile), transcranial direct current stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation each had no significant effect on case fatality or combined death or dependency. Dysphagia at end-of-trial was reduced by acupuncture (number of studies (t) = 4, numbers of participants (n) = 256; OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.46; P < 0.0001; I(2) = 0%) and behavioural interventions (t = 5; n = 423; OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.88; P = 0.01; I(2) = 22%). Route of feeding: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding did not differ for case fatality or the composite outcome of death or dependency, but PEG was associated with fewer treatment failures (t = 3; n = 72; OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.51; P = 0.007; I(2) = 0%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (t = 1; n = 321; OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.69; P = 0.007), and higher feed delivery (t = 1; n = 30; MD 22.00; 95% CI 16.15 to 27.85; P < 0.00001) and albumin concentration (t = 3; n = 63; MD 4.92 g/L; 95% CI 0.19 to 9.65; P = 0.04; I(2) = 58%). Although looped NGT versus conventional NGT feeding did not differ for end-of-trial case fatality or death or dependency, feed delivery was higher with looped NGT (t = 1; n = 104; MD 18.00%; 95% CI 6.66 to 29.34; P = 0.002). Timing of feeding: there was no difference for case fatality, or death or dependency, with early feeding as compared to late feeding. Fluid supplementation: there was no difference for case fatality, or death or dependency, with fluid supplementation. Nutritional supplementation: there was no difference for case fatality, or death or dependency, with nutritional supplementation. However, nutritional supplementation was associated with reduced pressure sores (t = 2; n = 4125; OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.96; P = 0.03; I(2) = 0%), and, by definition, increased energy intake (t = 3; n = 174; MD 430.18 kcal/day; 95% CI 141.61 to 718.75; P = 0.003; I(2) = 91%) and protein intake (t = 3; n = 174; MD 17.28 g/day; 95% CI 1.99 to 32.56; P = 0.03; I(2) = 92%).

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS:

There remains insufficient data on the effect of swallowing therapy, feeding, and nutritional and fluid supplementation on functional outcome and death in dysphagic patients with acute or subacute stroke. Behavioural interventions and acupuncture reduced dysphagia, and pharyngeal electrical stimulation reduced pharyngeal transit time. Compared with NGT feeding, PEG reduced treatment failures and gastrointestinal bleeding, and had higher feed delivery and albumin concentration. Nutritional supplementation was associated with reduced pressure sores, and increased energy and protein intake.

ACESSE O PERIÓDICO