Arquivo da tag: rehabilitation

Swallowing and dysphagia rehabilitation: translating principles of neural plasticity into clinically oriented evidence.

J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2008 Feb;51(1):S276-300. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2008/021).
Robbins J1, Butler SG, Daniels SK, Diez Gross R, Langmore S, Lazarus CL, Martin-Harris B, McCabe D, Musson N, Rosenbek J.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This review presents the state of swallowing rehabilitation science as it relates to evidence for neural plastic changes in the brain. The case is made for essential collaboration between clinical and basic scientists to expand the positive influences of dysphagia rehabilitation in synergy with growth in technology and knowledge. The intent is to stimulate thought and propose potential research directions.

METHOD:

A working group of experts in swallowing and dysphagia reviews 10 principles of neural plasticity and integrates these advancing neural plastic concepts with swallowing and clinical dysphagia literature for translation into treatment paradigms. In this context, dysphagia refers to disordered swallowing associated with central and peripheral sensorimotor deficits associated with stroke, neurodegenerative disease, tumors of the head and neck, infection, or trauma.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

The optimal treatment parameters emerging from increased understanding of neural plastic principles and concepts will contribute to evidence-based practice. Integrating these principles will improve dysphagia rehabilitation directions, strategies, and outcomes. A strategic plan is discussed, including several experimental paradigms for the translation of these principles and concepts of neural plasticity into the clinical science of rehabilitation for oropharyngeal swallowing disorders, ultimately providing the evidence to substantiate their translation into clinical practice.

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Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Efficacy in Acute Stroke Feeding Tube-Dependent Dysphagia During Inpatient Rehabilitation

Kushner DS, Peters K, Eroglu ST, Perless-Carroll M, Johnson-Greene D.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Mar 8.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in addition to traditional dysphagia therapy (TDT) including progressive resistance training (PRT) with that of TDT/PRT alone during inpatient rehabilitation for treatment of feeding tube-dependent dysphagia in patients who have had an acute stroke.

DESIGN:

This study is an inpatient rehabilitation case-control study involving 92 patients who have had an acute stroke with initial Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) scores of 3 or lower and profound to severe feeding tube-dependent dysphagia. Sixty-five patients, the NMES group, received NMES with TDT/PRT, and 27 patients, the case-control group, received only TDT/PRT. Treatment occurred in hourly sessions daily for a mean ± SD of 18 ± 3 days. χ Analyses/t tests revealed no significant statistical differences between the groups for age (t = -0.85; P = 0.40), sex (χ = 0.05; P = 0.94), and stroke location (χ = 4.2; P = 0.24). A Mann-Whitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups for the initial FOIS score (z = -2.4; P = 0.015), with the NMES group having worse initial scores with a mean rank of 42.64 and the case-control TDT/PRT group having a mean rank of 55.8. The main outcome measure was the comparison of the FOIS scores after treatment.

RESULTS:

The mean ± SD FOIS score after NMES with TDT/PRT treatment was 5.1 ± 1.8 compared with 3.3 ± 2.2 in the case-control TDT/PRT group. The mean gain for the NMES group was 4.4 points; and for the case-control group, 2.4 points. Significant improvement in swallowing performance was found for the NMES group compared with the TDT/PRT group (z = 3.64; P < 0.001). Within the NMES group, 46% (30 of 65) of the patients had minimal or no swallowing restrictions (FOIS score of 5-7) after treatment, whereas 26% (7 of 27) of those in the case-control group improved to FOIS scores of 5-7, a statistically significant difference (χ = 6.0; P = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that NMES with TDT/PRT is significantly more effective than TDT/PRT alone during inpatient rehabilitation in reducing feeding tube-dependent dysphagia in patients who have had an acute stroke.

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Evidence-based systematic review: Oropharyngeal dysphagia behavioral treatments. Part III-Impact of dysphagia treatments on populations with neurological disorders

John Ashford, PhD; Daniel McCabe, DMA; Karen Wheeler-Hegland, PhD; Tobi Frymark, MA; Robert Mullen, MPH; Nan Musson, MA; Tracy Schooling, MA; Carol Smith Hammond, PhD

JRRD, Volume 46 Number 2, 2009, Pages 195 — 204

Abstract —

This evidence-based systematic review (EBSR) is part of a series of reviews examining the state of the research regarding behavioral interventions for dysphagia. This EBSR focuses primarily on dysphagia secondary to neurological disorders (e.g., brain injury, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and dementia). The seven behavioral treatments investigated were three postural interventions (side lying, chin tuck, and head rotation) and four swallowing maneuvers (effortful swallow, Mendelsohn, supraglottic swallow, and super-supraglottic swallow). We systematically searched the dysphagia literature from March 2007 to April 2008 using 14 electronic databases. Seven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were evaluated for methodological quality and stage of research. Of the included studies, only two were judged to be efficacy research; the remaining five were considered exploratory. Methodological quality of studies ranged from one to seven out of eight possible quality markers. Five of seven treatment interventions were addressed by at least one study. No studies were found to address the effortful swallow or the super-supraglottic swallow. Currently, limited evidence from seven studies shows the potential effects of dysphagia behavioral interventions for select groups of individuals with neurologically induced dysphagia. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these and the remaining interventions with various populations with neurological disorders.

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Evidence-based systematic review: Oropharyngeal dysphagia behavioral treatments. Part II-Impact of dysphagia treatment on normal swallow function

Karen Wheeler-Hegland, PhD; John Ashford, PhD; Tobi Frymark, MA; Daniel McCabe, DMA; Robert Mullen, MPH; Nan Musson, MA; Carol Smith Hammond, PhD; Tracy Schooling, MA

JRRD, Volume 46 Number 2, 2009, Pages 185 — 194

Abstract —

This article is the second in a series of evidence-based systematic reviews. Data reported cover the impact of dysphagia behavioral interventions on swallow physiology in healthy adults. The behavioral treatments investigated were three postural interventions-side lying, chin tuck, and head rotation-and four swallowing maneuvers-effortful swallow, the Mendelsohn maneuver, supraglottic swallow, and super-supraglottic swallow. A systematic search of the dysphagia litera-ture was conducted in 14 electronic databases. Seventeen studies meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated for methodological quality with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s levels-of-evidence scheme and were characterized by research stage (i.e., exploratory, efficacy, effectiveness, cost-benefit/public policy research). Effect sizes were calculated when possible. All studies were exploratory research ranging from two to five of seven possible quality markers. The majority of studies (8 of 17) investigated effortful swallow. Three studies examined the Mendelsohn maneuver, chin tuck, supraglottic swallow, and super-supraglottic swallow and two studies addressed head rotation. No study addressed side lying. For nondisordered populations, the existing evidence demonstrates differential effects of postural changes and maneuvers on swallowing physiology. Some effects reinforced existing recommendations for the applications of the interventions, while others suggested new ways that the treatments may impact swallow function. Avenues for future research are suggested.

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Evidence-based systematic review: Oropharyngeal dysphagia behavioral treatments. Part I-Background and methodology

Tobi Frymark, MA; Tracy Schooling, MA; Robert Mullen, MPH; Karen Wheeler-Hegland, PhD; John Ashford, PhD; Daniel McCabe, DMA; Nan Musson, MA; Carol Smith Hammond, PhD

JRRD, Volume 46 Number 2, 2009, Pages 175 — 184

Abstract —

Evidence-based systematic reviews (EBSRs), in conjunction with clinical expertise and client values, are invaluable tools for speech-language pathologists and audiologists. This article provides an overview of the levels-of-evidence scheme used by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) to conduct systematic reviews. The goal of ASHA reviews is to provide a tool to help clinicians determine the best treatment course for their clients. We present a collaborative project between ASHA’s National Center for Evidence-based Practice in Communication Disorders and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) that examined seven behavioral swallowing treatments for disordered and nondisordered populations. The methodology used in a series of reviews conducted by ASHA and the VA will be discussed, including the development of clinical questions, search parameters, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and literature search results. Findings from the series of reviews as well as the practical applications of EBSRs will be reported in subsequent articles in this series.

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