Arquivo da tag: Swallow

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Measurements of Tongue and Hand Strength and Endurance Using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI)

Adams V, Mathisen B, Baines S, Lazarus C, Callister R.

Dysphagia. 2013 Mar 7


The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the use of the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) to measure strength and endurance of the tongue and hand in healthy populations and those with medical conditions. A systematic search of the scientific literature published since 1991 yielded 38 studies that addressed this purpose. The IOPI was used primarily for tongue strength (38 studies) and endurance (15 studies) measurement; relatively few studies measured hand strength (9 studies) or endurance (6 studies). The majority of the studies identified used the IOPI as an evaluation tool, although four used it as an intervention tool. Half the studies were conducted in healthy people, primarily adults. Most of the other participants had disorders with dysphagia, primarily Parkinson’s disease or head or neck cancer. Age and gender, as well as a number of medical conditions, influence the values of tongue and hand strength. There is sufficient evidence to support the use of the IOPI as a suitable tool for measuring tongue strength and endurance and as an assessment tool for intervention studies, and there is growing support for its use to assess hand strength and endurance in healthy and clinical populations.


Analysis of Hyoid Bone Using 3D Geometric Morphometrics: An Anatomical Study and Discussion of Potential Clinical Implications

Fakhry N, Puymerail L, Michel J, Santini L, Lebreton-Chakour C, Robert D, Giovanni A, Adalian P, Dessi P.

Dysphagia. 2013 Feb 28.


The aim of this study was to obtain a quantitative anatomical description of the hyoid bone using modern 3D reconstruction tools and to discuss potential applications of the knowledge in clinical practice. The study was conducted on 88 intact hyoid bones taken from cadavers during forensic autopsies (group 1) and on 92 bones from CT scan images of living adult subjects (group 2). Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from CT scan images using Amira 5.3.3® software. An anatomical and anthropological study of hyoid bones was carried out using metric and morphological analyses. Groups 1 and 2 were compared to evaluate the influence of muscle traction on hyoid bone shape. Characteristics of the hyoid bone were highly heterogeneous and were closely linked with the sex, height, and weight of the individuals. Length and width were significantly greater in men than in women (39.08 vs. 32.50 mm, p = 0.033 and 42.29 vs. 38.61 mm, p = 0.003), whereas the angle between the greater horns was larger in females (44.09 vs. 38.78, p = 0.007). There was a significant positive correlation between the height (Pearson coefficient correlation r = 0.533, p = 0.01) and weight (r = 0.497, p = 0.01) of subjects and the length of the hyoid bone. Significant metric differences were shown between group 1 and group 2. This very reproducible methodology is important because it may lead to clinical studies in, e.g., head and neck cancer or sleep apnea. Such studies are ongoing in our research program.


Anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism

Perry JL
Semin Speech Lang; 32(2): 83-92, 2011 May.
Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism is the first step in providing appropriate diagnosis and treatment for children born with cleft lip and palate. The velopharyngeal mechanism consists of a muscular valve that extends from the posterior surface of the hard palate (roof of mouth) to the posterior pharyngeal wall and includes the velum (soft palate), lateral pharyngeal walls (sides of the throat), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat). The function of the velopharyngeal mechanism is to create a tight seal between the velum and pharyngeal walls to separate the oral and nasal cavities for various purposes, including speech. Velopharyngeal closure is accomplished through the contraction of several velopharyngeal muscles including the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, and salpingopharyngeus. The tensor veli palatini is thought to be responsible for eustachian tube function.

Gender Effect on Oral Volume Capacity

Weslania Viviane Nascimento, Rachel Aguiar Cassiani, Roberto Oliveira Dantas

Dysphagia, September 2012, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 384-389


Studies have shown anatomical and functional differences between men and women with respect to the mouth, pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter, and esophagus. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the influence of gender, body mass index (BMI), age, and orofacial anthropometric measurements on the intraoral maximum volume capacity for liquid. The investigation included asymptomatic subjects, 56 females and 44 males, aged 19–53 years. The volunteers sucked water through a straw up to the maximum tolerated oral volume, which was greater in men (71.2 ± 15.0 ml) than in women (55.4 ± 13.4 ml). Age, BMI, height, and number of teeth had no influence on the intraoral tolerated volume. Anthropometric orofacial measurements were greater in men than in women. In individuals with height between 1.66 and 1.89 m, anthropometric orofacial measurements were greater in men than in women, and the tolerated intraoral volume was greater in men than in women. There was a positive correlation between orofacial measurements and intraoral maximum volume. In conclusion, men have the capacity to place a larger volume of water inside their mouth than women. This observation is associated with higher anthropometric orofacial measures, but not with age, number of teeth, height, or BMI.