Freeman-Sanderson A; Togher L; Phipps P; Elkins M
Int J Speech Lang Pathol;13(6):518-25, 2011 Dec.
Speech-language pathologists manage communication and swallowing disorders, both of which can occur in patients after tracheostomy insertion. An audit on the incidence and timing of speech-language pathology intervention for adults with tracheostomies has not previously been published. Data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of all patients who were tracheostomized at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW, Australia, from October 2007 for 1 year. Extracted data included diagnosis, date and type of tracheostomy, time to speech-language pathologist involvement, time to phonation, and time to oral intake. Among the 140 patients (mean age 58 years, range 16-85), diagnoses were neurological (32%), head and neck (25%), cardiothoracic (24%), respiratory (6%), and other (13%). Speech-language pathology was involved with 78% of patients, with initial assessment on average 14 days after tracheostomy insertion (14 days to 166 days). Median time from tracheostomy insertion to phonation was 12 days (range 1-103). Median time from tracheostomy insertion to oral intake was 15 days (range 1-142). Only 20% of patients returned to verbal communication within 1 week after tracheostomy insertion. Further research into access to and timing of speech-language pathology intervention in the critical care setting is warranted.
ACESSE O PERIÓDICO
Autor(es): Scalabrino N; Crespi L; Bosco M; Troisi E; Vezzaro G; Baravelli M; Picozzi A; Rossi A; Cattaneo P; Rossi C; Anzà C
SCOPE: Patients with tracheostomy tube after major cardiac surgery undergoing Cardiac Rehabilitation Program often present swallowing disorders that need a specific evaluation. This study aimed at validating the usefulness of a swallowing screen protocol in order to obtain an early assessment of dysphagia and to prevent aspiration, malnutrition and dehydration risks.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protocol has been applied to 38 consecutive patients with tracheostomy tube after cardiac surgery between September 2007 and December 2009. The average age of patients was 73 +/- 6 years; the average value of left ventricular ejection fraction was 41 +/- 4%. The protocol included a water swallowing test and a specific swallowing test with blue dye. During tests, the presence of signs of swallowing dysfunction was evaluated and oxygen saturation levels were monitored.
RESULTS: Out of 38 patients, 2 did not show any swallowing deficits; 18 showed deficits in the water swallowing test even though they presented a preserved swallowing function during specific swallowing test. All these 20 patients (53%), before discharge, restarted an oral feeding and obtained an adequate body mass index and effective coughing, so they were soon decannulated. Twelve patients (31%) showed deficits during the water swallowing test, confirmed by the specific swallowing test with blue dye: the tracheostomy tube was not removed and a specific program of swallowing rehabilitation was performed. Before discharge all patients restarted an oral feeding, recovered an effective coughing and were decannulated. Six patients (16%), because of persistent dysphagia, underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. None of these 38 patients developed ab ingestis pneumonia, dehydration or malnutrition.
CONCLUSIONS: An early assessment of swallowing in patients with tracheostomy tube after cardiac surgery allows the selection of patients with higher aspiration risk, preventing possible severe complications.