Alvo A, Olavarría C.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2013 Mar
With intensive care patients, decannulation and deglutition disorders are frequent reasons for otorhinolaryngological assessment. The objective of a tracheostomy is to maintain a patent airway. It does not necessarily prevent episodes of aspiration and may even favour them. When the cause that led to the tracheostomy resolves, a decannulation may be proposed. Deglutition is a complex act involving the coordinated interaction of several structures of the aerodigestive tract. Fibre-optic endoscopy and videofluoroscopy are 2 useful, complementary tools for the evaluation of patients with swallowing disorders. In managing these patients, a thorough knowledge of laryngeal and swallowing physiology, as well as of the different therapeutic alternatives, is required. Although it is not uncommon for swallowing disorders to coexist in tracheostomy patients, decannulation evaluation is not synonymous with deglutition assessment. A patient could be a candidate for decannulation and have a swallowing disorder, or a tracheostomy patient could swallow adequately. Knowing and understanding these concepts will lead to more efficient management and help to clarify communication between the intensive care physician and the otorhinolaryngologist. Ideally, a multidisciplinary team should be formed to evaluate and manage these patients.
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Freeman-Sanderson A; Togher L; Phipps P; Elkins M
Int J Speech Lang Pathol;13(6):518-25, 2011 Dec.
Speech-language pathologists manage communication and swallowing disorders, both of which can occur in patients after tracheostomy insertion. An audit on the incidence and timing of speech-language pathology intervention for adults with tracheostomies has not previously been published. Data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of all patients who were tracheostomized at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW, Australia, from October 2007 for 1 year. Extracted data included diagnosis, date and type of tracheostomy, time to speech-language pathologist involvement, time to phonation, and time to oral intake. Among the 140 patients (mean age 58 years, range 16-85), diagnoses were neurological (32%), head and neck (25%), cardiothoracic (24%), respiratory (6%), and other (13%). Speech-language pathology was involved with 78% of patients, with initial assessment on average 14 days after tracheostomy insertion (14 days to 166 days). Median time from tracheostomy insertion to phonation was 12 days (range 1-103). Median time from tracheostomy insertion to oral intake was 15 days (range 1-142). Only 20% of patients returned to verbal communication within 1 week after tracheostomy insertion. Further research into access to and timing of speech-language pathology intervention in the critical care setting is warranted.
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A tracheostomy tube decreases the ability of the patient to communicate effectively. The ability to speak provides an important improvement in the quality of life for a patient with a tracheostomy. In mechanically ventilated patients, speech can be provided by the use of a talking tracheostomy tube, using a cuff-down technique with a speaking valve, and using a cuff-down technique without a speaking valve. Speech can be facilitated in patients with a tracheostomy tube who are breathing spontaneously by use of a talking tracheostomy tube, by using a cuff-down technique with finger occlusion of the proximal tracheostomy tube, and with the use of a cuff-down technique with a speaking valve. Teamwork between the patient and the patient care team (respiratory therapist, speech-language pathologist, nurse, and physician) can result in effective restoration of speech in many patients with a long-term tracheostomy.
Ohmae Y; Adachi Z; Isoda Y; Maekawa H; Kitagawa Y; Karaho T; Tanabe T; Kitahara S
Tracheostomy placement affects swallowing function, increasing the risk of aspiration. Recent studies suggest that because of increased risk of swallowing disturbance associated with tracheostomy, one-way speaking valve placement may help to reduce aspiration in tracheostomized patients. We hypothesize that airflow exhaled through the laryngeal cavity using the one-way speaking valve may improve the clearance of residual bolus from the upper airway, thus preventing bolus penetration and aspiration. We studied the effects of one way speaking valve placement on laryngeal clearance and swallowing physiology. Videoendoscopic and videofluoroscopic swallowing were examined in 16 patients with the tracheostomy, and swallowing was compared with and without the one-way speaking valve in place. Valve placement significantly improved laryngeal clearance and the incidence of penetration during swallowing. placement did not, however, significantly affect pharyngeal bolus residue, laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal delay or aspiration. Factors associated with the resumption of oral feedings were sufficient laryngeal elevation during swallow and the prevention of laryngeal penetration and aspiration. We concluded that one-way speaking valve placement improves laryngeal clearance and prevents laryngeal penetration, resulting in better oropharyngeal swallowing physiology and oral feeding.
Villarroel S, Gregory; Jalil C, Yorschua; Moscoso A, Gonzalo; Barañao G, Patricio; Astudillo M, Claudia; Chateau I, Bernardita; Méndez R, Mireya
Introduction: Speaking valve (SV) is an unidirectional flow device installed over the tracheostomy tube allowing phonation. Tolerance to this device depends on the permeability of the upper airway (UA), which may be indirectly assessed by measuring UA maintained expiratory pressure (PEMant).
Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of the maintained expiratory pressure as a clinical indicator of tolerance to the SV.
Method: Twenty three tracheostomized patients (median age 22 months-old) were evaluated with an aneroid manometer during 15 minutes, recording PEMant, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2),heart rate, respiratory rate, accessory muscle use and wheezing as signs of respiratory distress Results: PEMant values less than 10 cmH2O are associated with tolerance of the SV and values over 20 cmH2O are associated with intolerance.
Conclusion: Values under 10 cmH2O of PEMant can be used as an indicator of tolerance to VF.
MacBean N; Ward E; Murdoch B; Cahill L; Solley M; Geraghty T; Hukins C
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is commonly used during the acute management of cervical spinal cord injury, and is required on an ongoing basis in the majority of patients with injuries at or above C3. However, to date there have been limited systematic investigations of the options available to improve speech while ventilator-assisted post-cervical spinal cord injury. AIMS: To provide preliminary evidence of any benefits gained through the addition of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and/or a tracheostomy speech valve to the condition of leak speech. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Speech production in the three conditions was compared in two ventilator-assisted participants using a series of instrumental and perceptual speech measures. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: The addition of PEEP or the use of a speech valve resulted in speech that was superior to leak speech for both participants; however, individual variation was present. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Leak speech alone or with the addition of PEEP or a tracheostomy speech valve can facilitate functional communication for the ventilated patient, though PEEP and valve speech were found to be superior in the current study. These findings will be of assistance for clinicians counselling the growing population of patients who may require tracheostomy positive pressure ventilation long-term regarding communication options.
Mark A. Dettelbach, Roxann D. Gross MA, Jeanne Mahlmann, David E. Eibling
Head & neck, 2006 – Wiley Online Library
Objective. To assess potential benefit of a Passy-Muir Speaking Valve (PMV) in decreasing aspiration in patients with a tracheostomy.
Background. Many patients with tracheostomy exhibit clinically significant aspiration. It has been previously noted that aspiration can often be reduced or eliminated by plugging or removing the tracheostomy tube. Some patients, however, do not tolerate removal or plugging of their tracheostomy tube, which then leads to persistent aspiration. We postulated that a one-way speaking valve may restore more normal subglottic and glottic air flow and reduce aspiration.
Methods. Alert patients with a tracheostomy and clinical evidence of aspiration were eligible for study. Eleven patients with tracheostomy and known aspiration were studied with a modified barium swallow. Radiographic examination was used to evaluate the presence and amount of aspiration while patients swallowed both with and without a PMV in place on their tracheostomy tube.
Results. Aspiration was reduced (or eliminated) during swallowing in all 11 patients when they wore a PMV, when compared to swallowing with an open (unvalved) tube. This improvement was achieved with liquids, semisolids, and pureed consistencies.
Conclusion. This study demonstrates that a Passy-Muir speaking valve facilitated swallow and reduced aspiration in patients with a tracheostomy and known aspiration.
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