Shem KL; Castillo K; Wong SL; Chang J; Kao MC; Kolakowsky-Hayner SA
PM R;4(4):283-9, 2012 Apr.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of bedside swallow evaluation (BSE) compared with videofluorosopic swallow study (VFSS) in diagnosing dysphagia in individuals with tetraplegia due to spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study according to STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) criteria. SETTING: A county hospital with acute inpatient SCI unit. PATIENTS: Thirty-nine subjects with SCI and tetraplegia were enrolled. All of the subjects underwent BSE, and 26 subjects completed the VFSS. METHODS: Individuals with SCI underwent a BSE followed by a VFSS within 72 hours of the BSE. The subjects were diagnosed as having dysphagia if they had positive findings in either BSE or VFSS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated by using VFSS as the criterion standard. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects (38%) were diagnosed as having dysphagia based on the BSE results. Among the subjects who completed the VFSS, 11 were diagnosed with dysphagia (42%) and 4 were diagnosed with aspiration (10%). Of the 26 subjects who completed both BSE and VFSS, only 1 subject was diagnosed differently compared with BSE (3.8%). Different diet recommendations were made in 4 cases after VFSS versus BSE. Different liquid recommendations were made in 8 cases after VFSS versus BSE. Sensitivity of BSE was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.5%-100%), specificity was 93.3% (95% CI, 68.1%-99.8%). A positive predictive value of BSE was 91.7% (95% CI, 61.5%-100%), and the negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI, 76.8%-100%). CONCLUSIONS: Dysphagia is present in approximately 38% of individuals with acute tetraplegia. Because only one of the 21 subjects was diagnosed differently based on VFSS, we believe that BSE is an appropriate screening tool for dysphagia for individuals with cervical SCI. However, VFSS provided additional information on diet and liquid recommendations, so there appears to be an important clinical role for the VFSS.
ACESSE O PERIÓDICO
Stacey L. Halum, Albert L. Merati, Judith I. Kulpa, Susan K. Danielson, Safwan S. Jaradeh and Robert J. Toohill
Volume 113, Issue 6, June 2003, Pages: 981–984.
Objectives/Hypothesis Although the cricopharyngeus muscle is a ring-like structure, unilateral cricopharyngeal dysfunction can produce significant dysphagia. This entity has not been well described in the literature. The aims of the study were to identify the characteristic findings on videofluoroscopic swallow studies in patients with dysphagia secondary to unilateral cricopharyngeal dysfunction, to note the associated vagal nerve injury, and to evaluate patient outcomes following ipsilateral cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Study Design Retrospective clinical investigation.
Methods The clinic charts, electromyographic tests, videostroboscopic examinations, and videofluoroscopic swallow studies were reviewed from a series of patients who presented to our institution from 1993 to 2001 with dysphagia and findings on videofluoroscopic swallow studies suggestive of unilateral cricopharyngeal dysfunction on posterior–anterior view. In patients treated with ipsilateral cricopharyngeal myotomy, postoperative findings on swallow studies and patient outcomes were also reviewed.
Results Eighteen patients demonstrated findings characteristic of unilateral cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction on videofluoroscopic swallow study. The common feature was a unilateral shelf-like barrier at the cricopharyngeus on the posterior–anterior view with pooling of liquid bolus in the ipsilateral pyriform sinus and episodic shunting to the contralateral side. Eight patients did not have evidence of cricopharyngeal dysfunction (ie, cricopharyngeal bar) on lateral films. Of the 18 patients, 14 had histories consistent with vagal injury secondary to trauma (n = 2), neoplastic involvement (n = 7), iatrogenic injury (n = 2), or central nervous system disease (n = 3). Results of videostroboscopic examinations demonstrated vocal fold motion impairment in 14 patients, and electromyographic test results confirmed unilateral vagal injuries in those who underwent electromyographic testing (n = 6). In the remaining 4 of 18 patients, videostroboscopic examinations demonstrated normal vocal fold abduction but impaired lengthening with a posterior glottic gap, and electromyographic test results (n = 4) indicated unilateral superior laryngeal nerve involvement. Of the 15 patients treated with ipsilateral cricopharyngeal myotomy, 1 patient required postoperative esophageal dilations for an esophageal stricture distal to the cricopharyngeus, whereas the remaining 14 patients had functional resolution of their dysphagia.
Conclusion In patients presenting with dysphagia and evidence of unilateral vagal injury, careful assessment of posterior–anterior view on videofluoroscopic swallow study should be included to evaluate for unilateral cricopharyngeal dysfunction.
ACESSE O PERIÓDICO